03 January 2016

Darkness and Light

by Leigh Lundin

On the 1st of January, two seminal and opposing books entered the public domain. One of these books transmuted the world. The other, which came about as an indirect result of the first, transfigured it.

Mein Kampf
When Self-Publishing Goes Horribly Wrong

Mein Kampf was actually published by private press, Franz Eher Nachfolger GmbH, purchased in December 1920 by the fledgling Nazi party. Hitler’s original title, Viereinhalb Jahre (des Kampfes) gegen Lüge, Dummheit und Feigheit, or, Four and a Half Years of Struggle Against Lies, Stupidity and Cowardice… You begin to see the problem of a book written by an angry, poorly educated man. Publisher Max Amann quickly shortened the title to Mein Kampf (My Struggle), but it would take subsequent editions to correct the many grammatical and spelling errors.

Hardly a runaway best seller, Nazi party members were its intended audience. As Hitler gained power and prominence, sales increased and during the Third Reich, the book was often given as awards and gifts. The government gave special boxed editions to wedding couples.

Hitler expressed later regret, saying he’d never have written the thing if he’d known he’d actually ascend to supreme leadership in Germany. Part of that regret was that he’d too clearly spelled out his plans for what he considered Germany’s historical enemy, France, and his intentions for Russia, Poland, Britain, the Jews and the Slavs.

Few Germans actually read the book and even Mussolini admitted he hadn’t been able to wade through it. Foreign translations were deliberately softened. Houghton-Mifflin offered an ‘official’ abridged English translation that omitted Hitler's most anti-Semitic and militaristic statements. When a small Pennsylvania publisher, Stackpole and Sons, released a complete translation by William Soskin on that same day, Houghton-Mifflin sued and won, claiming exclusive rights.

An alarmed American UPI reporter in Germany took action of his own. A young Alan Cranston (yes, THAT Alan Cranston, later to become Senator Cranston of California), issued his own translation, the parts Houghton-Mifflin left out, that more accurately reflected Hitler’s horrific vision. Again Hitler’s publishers sued in American courts and won– but not before Cranston managed to get a half-million copies into readers’ hands.

From the end of WW-II until now, the state of Bavaria has held the copyright and refused to allow re-release of Mein Kampf in Germany, although with millions in print during the war years, copies were readily available. Now that copyright has expired. Bavaria will authorize annotated editions, printings that contain critical assessments.

A corollary to Godwin’s Law says that mention of Hitler or Nazis brings discussion to an end, but better is to come.

Diary of Anne Frank
The Girl Who Would Be Famous

For her bat mitzvah, Dutch schoolgirl Annelies Frank received a red-and-white plaid diary, one that would become known around the world. For two years, Anne bared her soul about her feelings and thoughts of those around her and the outside world. Her dream was to become a famous writer and journalist. And so she did.

It turns out the edition of Anne Frank’s Diary students read in school from the 1950s through the 1970s was edited to remove criticism of Anne’s mother and observations about her own, growing sexuality. A few parents (usually without sullying their minds by reading the text), have attempted to ban the book from American schools as recently as 2010 and again in 2013, calling the writings ‘pornographic’.

In fact, multiple editions are known to exist, at least two in Anne’s handwriting. In March 1944, Gerrit Bolkestein, a minister of the Dutch government in exile, announced on the underground Radio Oranje that diaries would be collected after the war to memorialize the suffering of the Dutch people. Upon hearing that, Anne began to rewrite her diary on loose-leaf sheets.

In August 1944, an unknown party betrayed the Frank family to the occupying Nazis. Six months later, Anne and her sister Margot died in Bergen-Belsen weeks before the camp was liberated by Allied troops.

Former Hitler Youth, Nazis, neo-Nazis, right-wing extremists and holocaust deniers have repeatedly contended the book is a forgery. Multiple examinations, forensic tests, handwriting analysis, and court-directed studies have shown otherwise.

Now comes a disturbing claim from the Anne Frank Fund in Switzerland: In fighting off the loss of copyright (and loss of royalties), they now assert Anne’s father, Otto Frank, was co-author. They also argue that their copyright claims should start the clock in the 1980s, the first appearance of the unexpurgated version.

The foundation’s short-term greed threatens to dilute the message and meaning of those precious writings. Fortunately, courts have ruled that an editor is not a co-author. Nevertheless, the Swiss foundation continues to lay claims to copyrights.

Two historically significant documents that could hardly be more different, one born in darkness, the other forged with hope. Have you read either? Or both? Which do you recommend for school curricula?

10 comments:

Dale Andrews said...

A nice piece, Leigh. I love it when the world juxtapositions occurrences!

Leigh Lundin said...

Thanks, Dale. The idea came from one of our readers, one I couldn't resist.

Janice Law said...

I thought (this item about Alan Cranston) was very relevant to your good piece today.

— Janice Law

Leigh Lundin said...

Thank you, Janice. I'm updating the article with an internal link to the New York Times article you provide.

Robert Lopresti said...

I have read one of those books. Guess which. It is worth reading the edition of the Diary that places all three versions side by side: her original, her revised, and the "official version" her father edited. As Philip Roth put it, by the time she was fourteen she knew she was a better author than she had been at age twelve, so naturally she revised.

Little known fact: the text apparently survived largely because the German officer who raided the secret annexe coveted the briefcase Anne kept the pages in. He dumped the pages on the floor and the woman who had been helping the Frank family rescued them and gave them to her father, after the war.

As for the Swiss corporation... my opinions of the Swiss people are definitely a blemish on my otherwise pristine character.

"How wonderful it is that nobody need wait a single moment before starting to improve the world." - Anne Frank

A Broad Abroad said...

I’m with Dale – love it when the Universe aligns seemingly disparate incidents.

"The idea came from one of our readers,one I couldn't resist".

Hmmm…the idea or the reader? (grin)

Eve Fisher said...

I have read both. The Diary is a classic, and rightly taught in most schools. (May the Swiss foundation realize that karma bites both ways, hard, and often...)

Mein Kampf is the indigestible rantings of a lunatic who couldn't write for toffee. Its closest modern contemporary is probably The Turner Diaries, which a militia dude thrust into my hands back when I worked at the courthouse to show me "what needed to be done". I totally understand why no one teaches either of these.

On the other hand, sometimes I think it would help to teach Mein Kampf, et al, ridicule the living daylights out of it, and make it clear that anyone who believed any word in it (including the "and" and "the) was a raving lunatic bastard with the brain of a dustmote and the morals of a rotting kudzu vine... I could go on, but I think you get the point...

Dixon Hill said...

Leigh, I read both back in high school. As I've noted here in the past, I read a lot of WWII history from grades 3 and up, so Mein Kampf seemed an important base to cover. I do sometimes think we shelter our current youth from war history and the darker side of culture, these days, but would recommend making Mein Kampf a general study book about as much as Eve would (Her statement is "spot-on" imho). Still, I think it should be available on the bookshelves, if for no reason other than demonstrating the insanity of Hitler. Certainly, anyone who reads the book would be an utter moron, if s/he tried denying those things you mentioned in your excellent post.

--Dixon

Leigh Lundin said...

Don’t hold back on our account, Eve! We agree.

As one reviewer said, Mein Kampf contained no new ideas that weren’t already circulating among the defeated and disaffected, who blamed the French and traitorous Jews for the harsh terms of the Versailles Treaty— and all the other ills in the world. How the logic extends from Point A to Point Stupid can’t be explained. By the way, new evidence hints that Hitler may not have solely dictated his opus to Rudolf Hess, but may have actually pecked out some himself on a prison typewriter, an example of the idle hands theory.

I started The Turner Diaries, an exercise in sleepless alarm that people can harbor such hate.

ABA, clever, naughty you! Of course it was deliberately ambiguous. (smile)

Rob, efforts are underway to study Anne’s evolution as a writer and certainly she was better as a young teen than the monster who sent her into hiding.

In regard to proving the authenticity of Anne’s diary and even the existance of Anne herself (nazis and neo-nazis had claimed she didn’t exist), authorities tracked down the arresting agent. He freely admitted dumping the papers from the briefcase and even identified Anne from photographs. His testimony helped tie the threads together that the writings and the girl were heartbreakingly real.

Leigh Lundin said...

Dixon, like you, I think ‘adult’ books should be more freely available among youth, not less. Teens and even subteen children are capable of thinking for themselves, knowing right from wrong and deciding the Chancellor wears no clothes. Dixon, you’re absolutely right.