The East India Company was the major player in India, where the opium was grown and processed. It was a private British joint-stock venture that effectively ruled India from 1757-1858. Raw opium was processed into the smokeable stuff for the China market (in Western Europe, people preferred drinkable laudanum) - chests weighing about 133 pounds each, which went for $1,000 dollars (about $25,000 in today's money.) The East India Company established a trading post in Canton, China in 1699, but leased out the trading rights to the trading companies, or hongs, which took the opium from Canton and smuggled it into China (via rivers, etc.). The major players were:
|Jardine and Matheson|
- Jardine, Matheson and Company, a/k/a The Honorable Company, was founded in 1832 in Canton with the partnership of William Jardine and James Matheson, both University of Edinburgh graduates. They were always the biggest trading company, or hong, and (having diversified heavily in the 20th century) are still going strong in Asia, even though they're incorporated out of Bermuda. (Their official website is interesting: http://www.jardines.com/ NOTE: Jardine-Matheson was fictionalized - and I would say cleaned up to the point of unrecognizability - by James Clavell in Tai-Pan.)
- Dent & Company, another British smuggler under Thomas Dent's leadership.
- The Dutch East India Company, about which I know tragically little.
- And the Americans: Russell & Company was the major player. One of the senior officers was Warren Delano, grandfather of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. (In case you're wondering where some of the Roosevelt money came from...) The other officer, Samuel Russell, was filthy rich and left a Russell Trust, which (among other things) is the original source of endowment funding for the Skull & Bones Society at Yale.
You see, up until the early 1800s, there was a major trade imbalance with China (and you thought that was a modern phenomenon!). There were a lot of reasons: China wasn't particularly interested in trade, they kept the British and other merchants hemmed into specific treaty ports and didn't let them into the rest of the country, 90% of their population was too poor to buy anything, and finally, the British didn't have much that they wanted. Except silver. So, for 130 years, China sold the West silk, porcelain, navigation equipment, firecrackers, and above all, tea. And since in those days trade involved either hard goods or hard cash, the British were being drained of silver at an alarming rate. And then someone got the bright idea to sell them opium.
Now the British charge d'affaires in Canton was Brian Thornton's and my favorite 19th century British agent, Captain Charles Elliot, R.N. He basically said that that opium (despite being illegal) was the property of the British crown and the Chinese needed to reimburse the merchants. They wouldn't, Elliot seized Hong Kong for starters, and the war was on.
There aren't too many wars which have been fought for the specific purpose of requiring the losing nation to legalize drugs. The Opium Wars were about the only ones I can think of. And, in terms of size and wealth disparities, it was the equivalent of the Colombian government aligning with the Colombian drug cartels to declare war on the United States in order to legalize cocaine in the 1970s. And winning. And, getting the following results:
|Sir Robert Hart|
- China had to open more treaty ports to foreigners.
- China had to give Britain Hong Kong permanently.
- China had to pay a $21,000,000 indemnity for all the costs of the war. (In today's terms, $52 trillion.)
- China had to give the British the right to set, control, and collect its own tariffs. NOTE: The Imperial Maritime Customs Service was manned by British officers from 1854-1950. Yes, you read that correctly. Look, it takes a long, long time to extort $52 trillion from any country, much less the additional revenues that Britain consistently expected. Over time, besides collecting maritime trade taxes and managing domestic customs administration, the IMCS collected maritime trade taxes, managed domestic customs administration, postal administration, harbor and waterway management, weather reporting, and published monthly Returns of Trade. The most famous Inspector-General was Sir Robert Hart, who held the post from 1863-1911.
- All foreigners got the equivalent of diplomatic immunity (called extraterritoriality back then); the right to be tried only by its own consul (i.e., whichever Jardine-Matheson-Dent was there). What really stuck in the Chinese craw was that this was extended to any Chinese employees of foreigners, making them suddenly beyond Chinese law.
- China had to allow foreigners to travel freely into the Chinese interior and live in Beijing.
- China had to legalize opium.
- China had to legalize Christianity. (You may wonder why China was upset about this. I'll talk more about that, and the one and only Karl Gutzlaff, missionary and opium trader, in another post.)
|Opium Den, unromanticized by Hollywood|
Imagine the United States having to submit to Colombian rule. Or any other... Imagine having a foreign power in charge of our taxes and tariffs for almost a hundred years. Imagine having our country carved up into "spheres of influence", until there's hardly anything officially Chinese left. And now wonder why the Chinese have viewed, and still view, the West with suspicion. We think we have excellent reasons to distrust China. I'd say that if we do, it's called revenge.